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John Zaixin Zhang

 
 
 

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Critical Theory on Nature vs. Culture  

2015-05-24 23:23:31|  分类: +文论 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Critical Theory on Nature vs. Culture

John Zaixin Zhang

20th-Century Critical Theory

Department of English, BFSU

Spring 2015

1.    Psychoanalysis:

Freud (1905-25)                             Lacan (1936-49)

Nature/Biology/History/Reality

Culture/Discourse/Language

Sexual instinct - the unconscious

Unconscious structured like a language

Male self: presence of the penis

Mirror image – self as a social being

Female other: lack, penis envy

Phallocentric – other/Other

 

2.    Feminism: Beauvoir (1949)

Nature/Biology/History/Reality

Culture/Discourse/Language

Sex (male/female)

Gender (masculine/feminine)

 

3.    Deconstruction: Displacement in Derrida (1967)

Nature/Biology/History/Reality

Culture/Discourse/Language

 Nature supplemented by

culture

Reality contaminated by

text

Language not signifying an outside referent (structuralism: logocentric)

Signified also a signifier (dissemination of the signifier)

 

4.    Structuralist Marxism: Althusser (1970)

Nature/Biology/History/Reality

Culture/Discourse/Language

Semi-material existence

Subjects having both an imaginary and lived relation to ideology

 

5.    Metahistory: Displacement in White (1973)

Nature/Biology/History/Reality

Culture/Discourse/Language

History supplemented by

literature, ideology, rhetoric

 

6.    Feminism vs. Phallic Language: Cixous (1975)

Nature/Biology/History/Reality

Culture/Discourse/Language

Body inscribing/inscribed by

feminist writing (as center)

 

7.    Poststructuralist Marxism: Displacement in Eagleton (1976)

Nature/Biology/History/Reality

Culture/Discourse/Language

History contaminated by  

ideology (signification of history)

 

8.    Power-knowledge: Displacement in Foucault (1976)

Nature/Biology/History/Reality

Culture/Discourse/Language

Sex (sexual desire) is inscribed by

sexuality (discourse on sex)

History/reality repressed and produced by

power-knowledge (discourse)

 

9.    Feminism vs. Phallic Language: Irigaray (1977)

Nature/Biology/History/Reality

Culture/Discourse/Language

Lips/lips speak

(Body inscribing/inscribed by)

a cunt/concentric discourse

 

10. Feminism vs. Phallic Language: Kristeva (1976, 1980)

 

Culture/Discourse/Language

Structuralist:

Semiotic as the unconscious of the symbolic

Poststructuralist:

Displacement of subject and object: abject

 

11. Colonial Critique: Displacement in Said (1978)

Nature/Biology/History/Reality

Culture/Discourse/Language

History/reality constructed by discourses

White self vs. black other in Orientalist discourse

 

12. Postmodernism as a Monism: Baudrillard (1981)

Nature/Biology/History/Reality

Culture/Discourse/Language

Hyperreal (no historical real)

Simulacra/images without originals

 

13. Post-colonialism: Displacement in Bhabha (1983, 1994)

Nature/Biology/History/Reality

Culture/Discourse/Language

History/reality constructed by discourses

Mimicry: Black as partial presence in colonial discourse (hybridized stereotype)

 

14. Post-colonialism: Displacement in Tiffin (1987)

Nature/Biology/History/Reality

Culture/Discourse/Language

History/reality constructed by discourses

Counter-discourse: englishes writing back to English (hybridized discourse)

 

15. New Historicism: Displacement in Greenblatt (1987)

Nature/Biology/History/Reality

Culture/Discourse/Language

Public discourses (historical, social, legal, etc.) in circulation with

private discourses (psychological, literary, etc.)

History/reality constructed

by discourses

 

16. Gender as Performance: Displacement in Butler (1990)

Nature/Biology/History/Reality

Culture/Discourse/Language

Sex (sexual desire) is already

(Sex inscribed by culture)

gendered (sex and gender, both socially constructed)

 Sex as gender (under erasure)

Gender

 

Compare:

Feminism: Beauvoir

Nature/Biology/History/Reality

Culture/Discourse/Language

Sex (male/female)

Gender (masculine/feminine)

 

17. Trauma: Displacement in Caruth (1991)

Nature/Biology/History/Reality

Culture/Discourse/Language

History/experience (as historical memory) filtered through

the fictions of traumatic repression

 

18. Enforcing Normalcy: Displacement in Davis (1995)

Nature/Biology/History/Reality

Culture/Discourse/Language

Disability is

a social construct

 

19. Age as performance: Displacement in Laz (1998)

Nature/Biology/History/Reality

Culture/Discourse/Language

Age is

a social construct (a concentric circle)

 

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