注册 登录  
 加关注
   显示下一条  |  关闭
温馨提示!由于新浪微博认证机制调整,您的新浪微博帐号绑定已过期,请重新绑定!立即重新绑定新浪微博》  |  关闭

张在新

John Zaixin Zhang

 
 
 

日志

 
 

Body/Dress, Gender as Performance in Shamela (2012)  

2012-12-30 00:36:37|  分类: +十八世纪英国小 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

Body/Dress, Gender as Performance in Shamela (updated 2012)

Zhang, John Zaixin. Notes on Shamela

 

Parody (a literary work in which the style of an author is closely imitated for comic effect or in ridicule)

319. About Williams: “For he who drew the Character of Parson Williams, is equal to the Task: nay he seems to have little more to do than to pull off the Parson’s Gown, and that which makes him so agreeable to Shamela, and the Cap will fit.”

321-2. Voyeuristic gaze at Pamela (book and person), dress/body, text/body to contain/hide spirit

323. Author or editor (editor’s fault to hide the truth?)

324. ornament to hide true self

325. Misrepresentation of facts (included in the manuscript) – claim of authenticity – lifting the dress of Pamela to reveal sham(ela)

327. S: I’m just like you, kettle/pot (mother/daughter) – mother: act your part (pretending to be a virgin) act your gender (unstable gender roles)

328. Advice Moll would like to hear, not to trust promises; making a good market (well-paid beforehand) – advice about “business” to Shamela (“man” trait)

330. Satirizes “writing to the moment” – can’t write in the present tense while pretending to sleep (writing can’t capture the immediacy of speaking)

 “Fielding’s point in parodying the immediacy of the present tense epistolary style is to show us how Richardson himself is complicit in the act of counterfeiting.”

 From Ian A. Bell Henry Fielding: Authorship and Authority, London: Longman, 1994. pp. 57-77.

331. truth both in Shamela and Pamela

332. 3rd-person Pamela as Sham – she suits the dress – P: no dress could fool B, but B says he should know her out of any dress – For P she is herself, and dress can’t change that, but for B, the pun means dress may get in the way of knowing P – concealment and unconcealment of dress

333. Mother beats 3 officers – act her age (gender)

336. Williams: talk/do/believe (believing will save us)

339. Virtue as word/deeds – illusive (Moll)

341. Williams makes all other men “little” (319, 347, Williams pleased her more) – deception in evaluating the meaning of marriage (wife) vs. prostitution (whore) – fakes virginity on wedding night (virginity/body as woman’s currency – as illusive as sign-exchange value of money; sign-exchange value of virginity/virtue – Fanny Hill (in Louise Kibbie 572-3) – “virtue” more valuable than ?250 a year – money equivalent of more than that amount (spending for a lifetime) body/soul (soul constituted by body; violation of body as violation of soul) – making a connection, purpose/entry point:

Watt (1957): the rise of the novel and the middle class

McKeon (1985): rethinking the rise of the novel – claims to authenticity – two pairs (Pamela vs. Shamela, Robinson Crusoe vs. Gulliver’s Travels)

Warner (1992): the elevation of the novel (rather than the rise of the novel) and hegemony

Entry point: body as currency (exchange, site of production, sign-exchange value, etc.) and claims to authenticity (body as text and writing as body, intertextuality, dress vs. body, expression vs. thought, etc.)

Body as currency and intertextuality in Moll Flanders, Pamela, Shamela, and Fanny Hill shapes/questions claims to authenticity as an element of the rise of the novel – the novel does not rise from just one book (Pamela) or a pair of books (Pamela and Shamela) – echoing and going beyond McKeon – but from an intertextuality of more works focused on body and claims to authenticity (as one of the elements that formulates the rise of the novel)

342. A little fortune by my person/body vs. a great one by my virtue – virtue as currency – mother’s advice (gender roles)

343. implicit in Pamela but explicit here – “demean yourself so low” (326, 331 – text lifts itself in clothing/truth)

347. Wedding night – writing to Williams - Fakes virginity on wedding night (virginity/body as woman’s currency –Fanny Hill (Kibbie 572-3) – “virtue” more valuable than ?250 a year)

348. Wants to bleed B if not bleeding him white – she didn’t bleed for him – Hummel: “The only gift is a portion of thyself. Thou must bleed for me” (Emerson) – currency exchange, sign-exchange value of virginity for exchange value of money – site of production based on the sign-exchange value of the body/virtue – has diminished his fortune and male pride – parody of virtue rewarded in Pamela

348. Implying her “virtue” would be a money equivalent of a million pounds

 “Fielding’s book swiftly and flagrantly rewrites the sexual politics of the basic plot, removing the notion that men are predators and women victims, and replacing it with the contending notion that the crafty are predatory and the gullible are their prey, irrespective of gender.”

 From Ian A. Bell Henry Fielding: Authorship and Authority, London: Longman, 1994. pp. 57-77.

 Act your gender. (Shamela acts her gender)

351. Williams: object of love (spirit), object of necessity (flesh)

353. Has both flesh and spirit (two “husbands”) in London – “disowns” mother for a settlement of 20 pounds a year

354. B wants a book written about him and Shamela, but changes the name to Pamela – can make black white (about Pamela by Richardson)

356. these pages (of the novel) are copies, not the originals

357. the published book is only the copies of the originals

Person/thought vs. clothing as ornament/expression

(Pamela 387. P’s charming thoughts to grace her language (secondary language external to primary thought: “My beloved wants no language, nor sentiments neither; and her charming thoughts, so sweetly expressed, would grace any language.”)

339. Virtue: word/deeds, ornament/person, expression/thought – illusive (but still stresses the importance of deeds) – body (as immodesty beauty) vs. dress: pulled down my stays to show as much as I could to show my bosom. (Echoing Parson Tickletext’s letter to Parson Oliver) - dress reveals/defines body

344. Her name as a pun on one piece of clothing, as false clothing for the person: one sham (shams: false sleeves that put on over a dirty shirt) - signifier, name, clothing

340. Expression vs. thought: (Drink to the dear monysyllable (monosyllable) – cunt) – I don’t understand that word but I believe it is bawdy. (Knowing the thought, from the context, although not the expression, thought without expression – pun on body without dress)

338. Shamela’s petticoat (signifier/ornament/expression) in the pond signifies the drowning of the person (signified/body/thought) – one-to-one correspondence between the signifier and signified rendered as problematic - brings out the play of significance - signifier (petticoat in the pond) doesn't refer to its signified (by convention, it should signify drowing).

321. Parson Tickletext’s letter to Parson Oliver: thought clothed by the expression – becomes its dress (as elegant as dress) – when modest beauty seeks to hide itself,  Pamela/Shamela’s body (as immodest beauty) is written all over the close-fitting dress (as if stripped naked) to reveal her body/true colors; dress as external to body and as an addition/supplement to body, but also becomes part of body (body as if imprinted on dress) – “Thought is every where exactly cloathed by the Expression; and becomes its Dress as roundly and as close as Pamela her Country habit; or as she doth her no Habit…” – When you see Pamela/Shamela in her close-fitting dress (“her Country habit”), you seem to see nothing but her body (“by casting off the Pride of Ornament, and displays itself without any Covering”) – dress as an equivalent of body (dress covers and reveals the body at the same time – it covers the body with its material specificity and reveals the body with “bodily” characteristics written all over that specificity).

Random House Webster’s College Dictionary (2001) definition: ornament: an object or feature intended to beautify the appearance of that to which it is added or of which it is a part – “supplementality”

322. Tickletext: “It hath Witchcraft in every Page of it. – Oh! I feel an Emotion even while I am relating this: Methinks I see Pamela at this Instant, with all the Pride of Ornament cast off” – no ornament/expression necessary, simply the (erotic) emotion/thought/body is felt

323. Parson Oliver to Parson Tickletext: “… I have since observed, that this, as well as many other Expressions in your Letter, was borrowed from those remarkable Epistles…” – nothing but expressions are borrowed from Pamela; person/thought reduced to dress/ornament (with all the “pride of body” cast off; thought exists in expression only – secondariness of both thought and expression)

324. Parson Oliver’s ambivalence: one lesson for the servant-maids to learn (the instruction which it conveys to servant-maids): using all manner of means to come at ornaments of their persons to trap their masters (only the ornaments/expressions will count, lamentation of the danger of losing the person/thought, matching of word/deeds needs to be restored)

332. Mrs. Jervis: “she became the Dress extremely” (the close-fitting dress as an equivalent of person) – Echoing Tickleteext, 321.

Shamela’s dress (fitting “as roundly and as close” to the person) changes Booby’s perception and conception of the person from “an ugly slut” into “such divine excellence” – clothing beatifies the person (perceptually) but also constitutes/defines the person conceptually; ornament/expression becomes person/thought) – Thought never exists prior to language. Thought is linguistic, and language is conceptual. The close-fitting dress adds beauty to and defines Shamela at the same time.

 Shamela: “you would have known me in any Dress” (my dress shouldn’t have fooled you) – person should be more prominent than dress

Booby: “I should know thee out of any Dress from all thy sex” (your dress fooled me) – dress is more prominent than person (Mr. Booby sees the dress only).

(But actually clothing and the person are equally important in the novel – secondariness of both clothing and person)

335. Women prefer a laced coat to the clergy (dress vs. body) – the laced coat (ornament/expression): “Dears” “Sweets” “Loves”; the clergy (person/thought): Williams is all that (loves women) without saying the words – he becomes part of the coat (with his passion written all over the coat/body) just like Shamela’s close-fitting dress – supplement (addition to person and part of person)

Topics for papers:

1.Gender as performance in Shamela (Shamela treating her own body as currency in her performance of gender)

327. Mother: act your part (pretending to be a virgin) – act your gender

333. Mother beats 3 officers – act her age (gender)

Analyze how Shamela uses her own body to demystify the myth of body and virtue as currency (illusive like the sign-exchange value of currency) (inspired by Kibbie’s study on Pamela and Fanny Hill)

Research: key points in Kibbie, parallel elements in S and F (faking virginity, etc.), Chaber on Moll and site of production, critical views on S and F, and on S’s mother (acting her age and gender), act your gender, act your age (“Act Your Age” by Cheryl Laz, sex and sexuality in Foucault’s The History of Sexuality, sex as performance in Gender Trouble by Judith Butler)

2.Illusive nature of body and currency in MF and Shamela (questioning the validity of body as the site of production)

Compare and contrast Moll Flanders and Shamela to see how the former shapes the latter in terms of body as currency

Research: key points in Kibbie, in Chaber (production and reproduction), in Hummel (gift giving and bleeding), critical views on body and currency in MF and in Shamela, values of a commodity (Marx, Tyson), Shamela’s body for exchange, sign-exchange value of virginity, critique of capitalism in MF (besides Chaber), sign-exchange value of capital

Other possibilities:

3. Ambivalence towards self and other in Robinson Crusoe and Foe (1986) (connections between Defoe and Coetzee, different treatment of self and other in the latter?)

4. Dress/person in Moll Flanders, Pamela, and Shamela (to mock claims to authenticity, authorship and truth)

5. Problematic nature of signifier in Gulliver’s Travels (as a response to Robinson Crusoe or Locke’s notion of “distinctive ideas”, as a pre-text for Pamela and/or Shamela)

  评论这张
 
阅读(330)| 评论(0)
推荐

历史上的今天

在LOFTER的更多文章

评论

<#--最新日志,群博日志--> <#--推荐日志--> <#--引用记录--> <#--博主推荐--> <#--随机阅读--> <#--首页推荐--> <#--历史上的今天--> <#--被推荐日志--> <#--上一篇,下一篇--> <#-- 热度 --> <#-- 网易新闻广告 --> <#--右边模块结构--> <#--评论模块结构--> <#--引用模块结构--> <#--博主发起的投票-->
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

页脚

网易公司版权所有 ©1997-2017