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Freud on Sexuality  

2007-06-24 23:09:09|  分类: 心理分析 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Sigmund Freud on Sexuality, The Penguin Freud Library, vol. 7, ed. Angela Richards (London: Penguin Books, 1991)

 Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality (1905), trans. James Strachey, 31-169.

      p. 68. fixation of preliminary sexual aims - “Even what seem to be the strangest of these new aims are already hinted at in the normal sexual process.”

      p. 69. touching and looking - “Visual impressions remain the most frequent pathway along which libidinal excitation is aroused.”

      pp. 69-70. “The progressive concealment of the body which goes along with civilization keeps sexual curiosity awake. This curiosity seeks to complete the sexual object by revealing its hidden parts. It can, however, be diverted (‘sublimated’) in the direction of art, if its interest can be shifted away from the genitals on to the shape of the body as a whole. It is usual for most normal people to linger to some extent over the intermediate sexual aim of a looking that has a sexual tinge to it; [70] indeed, this offers them a possibility of directing some proportion of their libido on to higher artistic aims.”

      p. 114. “The assumption that all human beings have the same (male) form of genital is the first of the many remarkable and momentous sexual theories of children. It is of little use to a child that the science of biology justifies his prejudice and has been obliged to recognize the female clitoris as a true substitute for the penis.”

      “Little girls do not resort to denial of this kind when they see that boys’ genitals are formed differently from their own. They are ready to recognize them immediately and are overcome by envy for the penis - an envy culminating in the wish, which is so important in its consequences, to be boys themselves.”

      p. 130. The stimulation of looking “leads to an increase of sexual excitement or produces it if it is not yet present.”

      p. 142. “The leading erotogenic zone in female children is located at the clitoris, and is thus homologous to the masculine genital zone of the glans penis.”

      p. 143. “Frequent erections of that organ [the clitoris] make it possible for girls to form a correct judgment, even without any instruction, of the sexual manifestations of the other sex: they merely transfer on to boys the sensations derived from their own sexual process.”

      pp. 143-4. At puberty, “when erotogenic susceptibility to stimulation has been successfully transferred by a woman from the clitoris to the [144] vaginal orifice, it implies that she had adopted a new leading zone for the purposes of her later sexual activity. A man, on the other hand, retains his leading zone unchanged from childhood.” - This change of their leading erotogenic zone “puts aside their childish masculinity.”

      p. 148. “Society must defend itself against the danger that the interests which it needs for the establishment of higher social units may be swallowed up by the family; and for this reason, in the case of every individual, but in particular of adolescent boys, it seeks by all possible means to loosen their connection with their family - a connection which, in their childhood, is the only important one.”

      pp. 151-2. “It often happens that a young man falls in love seriously for the first time with a mature woman, or a girl with an elderly man in a position of authority; this is clearly an echo of the phases of development that we have been discussing, since these figures are able to re-animate pictures of their [152] mother or father.”

      p. 152. “If his mother is still alive, she may well resent this new version of herself and meet her with hostility.”

 

“On Transformations of Instinct as Exemplified in Anal Erotism” (1917), trans. E. Glover, 293-302.

      p. 297. “The wish for a penis and the wish for a baby would be fundamentally identical.”

      p. 298. “I have occasional opportunities of being told women’s dreams that had occurred after their first experience of intercourse. They revealed an unmistakable wish in the woman to keep for herself the penis which she had felt.”

 

“The Dissolution of the Oedipus Complex” (1924), trans. Joan Riviere, 313-22.

      p. 316. manipulating his genitals frequently - threat of castration from mother

      p. 317. the little boy is also threatened with castration for long-continued bed-wetting.

      p. 317. “What brings about the destruction of the child’s phallic genital organization is the threat of castration.

      p. 318. At the sight of the female genitals, “sooner or later the child, who is so proud of his possession of a penis, has a view of the genital region of a little girl, and cannot help being convinced of the absence of a penis in a creature who is so like himself.  With this, the loss of his own penis becomes imaginable, and the threat of castration takes its deferred effect.”

      p. 318. “The child’s ego turns away from the Oedipus complex.”

      p. 319. After the boy’s ego turns away from the Oedipus complex, “the object-cathexes are given up and replaced by identifications. The authority of the father or the parents is introjected into the ego, and there it forms the nucleus of the super-ego, which takes over the severity of the father and perpetuates his prohibition against incest, and so secures the ego from the return of the libidinal object-cathexis.” (taking mother as an object for sexual gratification) (The id, the super-ego, and the ego, The Ego and the Id, 1927)

      p. 320. “The little girl’s clitoris behaves just like a penis to begin with; but when she makes a comparison with a playfellow of the other sex, she perceives that she has ‘come off badly’ and she feels this as a wrong done to her and as a ground for inferiority.”

      pp. 320-1. “A female child does not understand her lack of a penis as being a sex character; she explains it by assuming that at some earlier date she had possessed an equally [321] large organ and had then lost it by castration.” So the fear of castration is excluded in the little girl.

      p. 321. “Her Oedipus complex culminates in a desire, which is long retained, to receive a baby from her father as a gift - to bear him a child. One has an impression that the Oedipus complex is then gradually given up because this wish is never fulfilled. The two wishes - to possess a penis and a child - remain strongly cathected in the unconscious and help to prepare the female creature for her later sexual role.”

     

“Some Psychical Consequences of the Anatomical Distinction Between the Sexes,” (1925), trans. James Strachey, 323-43.

      pp. 334-5. “In little girls the Oedipus complex raises one problem more than in boys. In both cases the mother is the original object; and there is no cause for surprise that boys retain that object in the Oedipus complex. But how does it happen that girls [335] abandon it and instead take their father as an object?”

      p. 337. Penis envy - “After a woman has become aware of the wound to her narcissism, she develops, like a scar, a sense of inferiority.” Then “she begins to share the contempt felt by men for a sex which is the lesser in so important a respect, and, at least in holding that opinion, insists on being like a man.”

      p. 338. “Even after penis-envy has abandoned its true object [the original object - mother], it continues to exist: by an easy displacement it persists in the character-trait of jealousy.”

      p. 338. “Soon after the girl has discovered that her genitals are unsatisfactory, she begins to show jealousy of another child on the ground that her mother is fonder of it than of her, which serves as a reason for her giving up her attachment to her mother.”

      p. 340. “She gives up her wish for a penis and puts in place of it a wish for a child: and with that purpose in view she takes her father as a love-object. Her mother becomes the object of her jealousy.”

      p. 341. “Whereas in boys the Oedipus complex is destroyed by the castration complex, in girls it is made possible and led up to by the castration complex.... It inhibits and limits masculinity and encourages femininity.” “The difference between the sexual devilment of males and females at the stage we have been considering is an intelligible consequence of the anatomical distinction between their genitals and of the psychical situation involved in it. It corresponds to the difference between a castration that has been carried out and one that has merely been threatened.”

 

“Female Sexuality” (1931), trans. Joan Riviere, 366-92.

      pp. 379-80. a prohibition of masturbation of the clitoris “becomes an incentive for giving it up, but it also becomes a motive for rebelling against the person who prohibits it - that is to say, the mother, or the mother-substitute who later regularly [380] merges with her. A defiant persistence in masturbation appears to open the way to masculinity.”

      p. 380. “Her resentment at being prevented from free sexual activity plays a big part in her detachment from her mother.”

  

Freud, Sigmund. The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Ed. James Straghey and Anna Freud. 24 vols. (London: The Hoharth Press and the Institutde of Psycho-Analysis, 1981).

      The boy’s love for mother is so egoistic that “he has an interest in preventing her from looking after anyone else… When other children appear on the scene the Oedipus complex is enlarged into a family complex. this, with fresh support from the egoistic sense of injury, gives grounds for receiving the new brothers or sisters with repugnance and for unhesitatingly getting rid of them by a wish” (Vol. XVI, 333-334).

       If “the libido has remained attached to the mother so long even after the onset of puberty, that the maternal characteristics remain stamped on the love-object that are chosen later, and all these turn into easily recognizable mother-surrogates” (Vol. XI, 196).

       “The adult’s conscious thought likes to regard his mother as a person of unimpeachable moral purity; and there are few ideas which he finds so offensive when they come from others, or feels as so tormenting when they spring from his own mind, as one which calls this aspect of his mother in question” (Vol. XI, 170).

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